Sunday, February 16, 2020

Ethical Conduct In War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ethical Conduct In War - Essay Example Soldiers comprehend that the military and the fellow soldiers look forward to them to show high sense of honour beyond what is shown in popular culture. The world of honour in military involves an individual discovering his real identity in roles and turning away from the roles is actually turning away from oneself. Hence, soldiers recognize that he or she is expected to take risks and forgo something in order to achieve the task, shield fellow soldier or defend innocent people. The use of force to decrease risk to fellow soldiers while placing the mission or innocent people at risk has to be considered to be inconsistent with military code of honour as well as the professional ethics. While emphasizing ethical behaviour as a goal, soldiers also value utilitarian basis for sustaining the highest moral standards. Education on values in soldiers can ring hollow unless tracked in a manner that offers perspective and shows relevance. Therefore, showing soldiers their enemy’s propa ganda aids in emphasizing the significance of ethical behaviour in countering misinformation. In military, considerate treatment, addressing grievances and developing trust within the population is one of the essential means for achieving success in military operations. Historical examples of extremes or abuse in pursuing tactical convenience have corrupted the moral nature of military units and destabilized planned objectives (â€Å"Moral, Ethical, And Psychological†¦Ã¢â‚¬  13-16). Leaders in military learn from history in order to evaluate their activities and putting modern operations within the perspective of previous experiences. Evaluating previous military operation experiences allows leaders to question contemporary missions, evade mistakes committed in the past, identify opportunities and recognize effective techniques. Though, education and indoctrination in professional military ethics as well as tough and realistic training are essential, they are insufficient in preserving moral character in intense emotional and psychological pressures that result from combat (â€Å"Moral, Ethical, And Psychological †¦" 17). Therefore, leaders prepare units to cope with stress that results from continuous operations within counterinsurgency environment, because combat stress usually results in unprofessional and unethical behaviour. Since counterinsurgency operations are more stressful compared to the conventional war, control of stress is a command responsibility even when grieving the loss of fellow soldiers. Military leaders have to be familiar with grief counselling and be able to watch soldier behaviour carefully in order to identify warning signs of stress like disconnection, suspiciousness toward comrades, distractibility and inconsistency (â€Å"Moral, Ethical, And Psychological †¦" 16). Leaders have to look for soldiers who have become â€Å"revenge driven† because they can break down discipline of the unit and inflict significa nt damage to the mission and fellow troopers; therefore, leaders endorse commitment to fellow troopers and mission as the main motivating factors in war. Certainly following rules of warfare slows down reaction time and forces commanders to discriminate the use of firepower, because the discriminate and precise use of firepower does more good than harm even in the lowest levels. Choosing to be precise in the use of firepo

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Management and Organisational Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Management and Organisational Behaviour - Essay Example Management is essentially an act of fulfillment of objectives through people, and efficient management implies getting the maximum output from the people. Therefore, a good manager must encourage teamwork and enhance team spirit by meeting the needs of both the individual and the team. This paper focuses on various theories of management and demonstrates their application with the help of a case study. Roles of a Manager – case of Oliver A business organization is a complex body that requires efficient and skilful management for proper running. A manager has multiple functions and responsibilities. Based on this theory, Henry Mintzberg identified ten essential managerial roles that are required for the fulfillment of the company’s objectives. The ten managerial roles are – 1) Figurehead, 2) Leader, 3) Liaison, 4) Monitor, 5) Disseminator, 6) Spokesperson, 7) Entrepreneur, 8) Disturbance-handler, 9) Resource-allocator, and 10) Negotiator (Watson & Gallagher, 2005, p.34). He has further categorized them in three groups as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Interpersonal Roles Informational Roles Decisional Roles Figurehead Monitor Entrepreneur Leader Disseminator Disturbance-handler Liaison Spokesperson Resource-allocator Negotiator (Lussier & Achua, 2009, p.10) The interpersonal roles define the authoritativeness of the manager and involve maintenance of a positive relationship with the employees. In figurehead role, the manager performs symbolical or ceremonial duties that can be of either social or legal nature. For instance, he needs to do social functions like attending to candidates for jobs, presenting awards, entertaining clients, receiving official visitors, and attending farewell dinners. As legal function he has the authority to sign official papers like cheques, vouchers and contracts. In leader role, a manager supervises and evaluates the performances of employees, hires new employees and provides them training. In liaison role, he maint ains contact with people outside the organization to form a network of services. The second group which is informational roles involves a major part of managerial functions which is to gather and convey information from the employees. In monitor role, the manager needs to gather information regarding problems and solutions of the organization. This can be done by reading journals, magazines, newspapers or by attending meetings inside or outside the organization or by observing and comparing the business activities of the competitors. In disseminator role, the manager receives information from internal sources like higher level of management or from external sources. He in turn transmits the information to the employees through group meetings or emails. In spokesperson role, the manager provides information about the organization to outside people like consumer groups, press, TV and government officials and any other communities who have vested interest in the organization. The third group which is decisional roles involves assessment of various possibilities before making strategies for the benefit of the organization. Such decisions may affect few employees or can affect the entire organization. In entrepreneur role, a manager develops ideas for new projects, makes decisions to abandon any project, develops innovative ideas and new products. In disturbance-handler role, a manager finds means to resolve external or internal